Understand PostgreSQL Before You Regret

Learning PostgreSQL’s basic syntax is critical to avoid making common mistakes. This article covers the VERBOSE output, the ANALYZE command, CTEs, and Index bloat. If you have no previous knowledge of this database language and how to use kubernetes to deploy postgres you should read this article. However, even if you haven’t used it before, you will probably still benefit from knowing a few critical things about it.

ANALYZE command

It would help if you learned about the ANALYZE command in PostgreSQL before you run a query. This command is handy in optimizing your SQL statements in PostgreSQL. However, analyzing database statistics is not the same as interpreting graphs. Therefore, there are some things to watch out for with this command. For instance, if you’re trying to determine how many rows are affected by a change, you should check each column’s number of distinct values.

Using the ANALYZE command in PostgreSQL will show how much time and memory is spent executing each query. In addition, the tool will display the estimated net execution time for a query by default. Besides that, it will also display the number of rows produced in the database and the size of an average result row. Additionally, this tool can show you how long it takes to execute a query, how many rows are generated, and how many rows are removed.

VERBOSE output

The VERBOSE output of PostgreSQL provides information about a query. It displays the query execution plan in a tree structure, starting with the Aggregate. Each node starts with an arrow indicating its level, and lower nodes are indented. The query execution has been completed if both nodes are on the same level. The VERBOSE output also provides information about a row count estimation.

The VERBOSE output of PostgreSQL shows the name of the schema in every message, but TERSE does not give guidance on how to handle errors. VERBOSE is useful for looking at Postgres source code, but it does not provide any advice on handling errors. The pg_dump utility uses the COPY streaming protocol and logs all connection attempts and successful connections. The log contains more detailed information than Syslog.


Recursive queries in PostgreSQL allow a query to return more than one instance of the same result. In this example, the query returns the first two employees, each of which is a separate row. The following two rows produce the second employee, and so on. In addition, recursive queries are supported by the MAXRECURSION query hint. To use a recursive CTE, you must specify both an anchor member and a recursive member. The anchor member must be before the first recursive member, and all data types must be the same for the two. In addition, the FROM clause of the recursive member can only reference the CTE expression, avoiding the possibility of duplicate results.

Using CTEs is a good idea when dealing with hierarchical data. CTEs can be used to replace views and create recursive queries. These are useful in situations where there are multiple levels of data and a single row is not sufficient. Recursive queries can also help overcome the limitations of the SELECT statement. CTEs can be recursive or non-recursive.

Index bloat

There are a few different ways to manage index bloat in PostgreSQL. You can run the VACUUM query to remove bloat from individual tables. This query is somewhat slow to execute, so you should plan to run it at an off-peak time, if possible. Alternatively, you can run a SELECT query to remove bloat from all tables. Both of these options have their pros and cons.

The most common method is to run the bloatcheck script to perform full scans on the tables and indexes that are the source of your ‘bloat.’ The script will force data out of shared buffers and clean up 100% of the bloat. This process should be run once every month or weekly and can be used to identify troublesome tables. MVCC

Multiversion concurrency control is an optimization in PostgreSQL that enables the database to provide high concurrency during reading/writing activity. It does this by offering a behavior where readers never block writers. This article highlights the optimizations of MVCC for PostgreSQL. The core of MVCC is a transaction ID that is assigned to each transaction. Each transaction receives a unique sequential number (XID). Every INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE command stores the XID in one of two system columns: xmin and xmax. Although these columns are invisible in SELECT * FROM… queries, they are readable by the MVCC-enabled versions of tables. MVCC is an excellent solution to the problem of dead rows occupying disk space.


When you use PostgreSQL to store your data, you must understand the concept of transactions. Transactions are logical units of work. One or more SQL statements are part of a transaction. This type of work will not affect the rest of the database or be visible to other user sessions. A transaction block is started with the BEGIN keyword, which initiates a transaction. However, be aware that transactions can be dangerous and may accumulate thousands of rows.

To understand PostgreSQL transactions, you must first understand what a subtransaction is. A subtransaction is a set of data pages containing a mapping from a subXID to its parent XID. In this process, PostgreSQL calculates the number of memory pages for the subXID, which is then used to search through them.